Definition: Pathological dilatation of airways in the lung.
- Daily production of 30 ml of purulent sputum (egg-cup full).
- distress, cyanosis
- "fruity", productive cough
- clubbing (65%)
- coarse pan-inspiratory crackles.
- cor pulmonale
- signs of underlying cause
- CXR: tram lines, ring shadows, fluid-filled cysts, patchy atelectasis.
- Bronchography: now out of fashion.
- CT thorax: bronchioles have
a larger diameter than their accompanying artery.
- cystic fibrosis
- immune deficiency syndromes: hypogammaglobulinaemia, complement deficiency,
- immotile cilia: Kartagener's syndrome, Young's syndrome
- Childhood lung disease
- recurrent pneumonia
- measles pneumonia
- Adult lung disease
- TB (most important cause worldwide)
- bronchial obstruction (malignancy, foreign body)
- gastric aspiration
- haemoptysis (occasionally life-threatening)
- extrapulmonary spread of infection (abcesses, empyema)
- treatment of underlying cause
- postural drainage
- antibiotics, bronchodilators for exacerbations
- influenza vaccination, but not HiB or pneumococcus
- (immunosuppressive: steroids)