Heart failure

Left heart failure

Symptoms

Signs

  1. central cyanosis
  2. tachypnoea
  3. sinus tachycardia, pulsus paradoxus
  4. dilated LV
  5. gallop rhythm (S3)
  6. functional mitral regurgitation
  7. basal crackles

Right heart failure

Symptoms

Signs

  1. peripheral cyanosis
  2. low volume pulse
  3. raised JVP, large v waves
  4. functional tricuspid regurgitation
  5. tender hepatomegaly, pulsatile liver
  6. dependent oedema

Causes

  1. IHD
  2. aortic valve disease
  3. mitral regurgitation
  4. pericarditis
  5. cardiac tamponade
  6. high output states