Human immunodeficiency virus infection
WHO estimates 30 million people worldwide, of which 2/3 are
in sub-Saharan Africa.
Sub-Saharan Africa: heterosexual transmission, perinatal transmission.
Three classes of drugs available:
Commonly prescribed in combination as HAART (anti-retroviral therapy)
- Protease inhibitor (PI)
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)
- Zidovudine (AZT)
- Didanosine (ddI)
- Lamivudine (3TC)
- Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)
HAART: lipodystrophy (decreased subcutaneous fat, increased abdominal fat, buffalo hump).
NNRTI: Rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
PI: hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance.