HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection

Demographics

WHO estimates 30 million people worldwide, of which 2/3 are in sub-Saharan Africa.

Transmission

Sub-Saharan Africa: heterosexual transmission, perinatal transmission.

Clinical features

Treatment

Three classes of drugs available: Commonly prescribed in combination as HAART (anti-retroviral therapy)

Adverse effects

HAART: lipodystrophy (decreased subcutaneous fat, increased abdominal fat, buffalo hump). NNRTI: Rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome. PI: hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance. ddI: pancreatitis.