Scoliosis

3D deformity of the spine.

Diagnosis

Distinguish between postural and structural. Postural scoliosis disappears on sitting.
Lateral curve >15° on XR (Cobb's angle)

Causes

Postural (e.g., short leg, prolapsed disc) Structural
  1. Idiopathic 70%
  2. Neuromuscular (cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, neurofibromatosis)
  3. Congenital hemivertebra
Cobb's angle.

Treatment

Observation until skeletal maturity. 30–40°: Milwaukee brace.
>40° immature: surgery
>60° mature: surgery.