3D deformity of the spine.
Distinguish between postural and structural. Postural scoliosis disappears on sitting.
Lateral curve >15° on XR (Cobb's angle)
Postural (e.g., short leg, prolapsed disc)
- Idiopathic 70%
- Neuromuscular (cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, neurofibromatosis)
- Congenital hemivertebra
Observation until skeletal maturity.
30–40°: Milwaukee brace.
>40° immature: surgery
>60° mature: surgery.