Lorazepam, diazepam: sedation, premedication,
EtOH withdrawal, status epilepticus, muscle spasm.
Not fully elucidated, but works by enhancing the effects of GABA.
Sedaton (warn about driving and heavy machinery).
Respiratory depression. Dependence (more likely with
longer acting benzodiazepines like lorazepam).
Reverse with Flumazenil (1,4-imidazobenzodiazepine derivative).
They are not removed by haemodialysis.
Lorazepam t½=16. Effects last 6–8 h.
Diazepam t½=20 at 20 aet. 80 at 80 aet.
Diazepam is relatively insoluble in water and
is highly irritant to veins, causing thrombosis.
Diazemuls is a soyabean oil emulsion of diazepam which
is less phlebotoxic.
Midazolam t½=3 h. Onset 15 min.
Amnesia 30 min.