American Society of Anaesthesiologists
ASA physical status classification:
- ASA I: Healthy patient.
- ASA II: Mild systemic disease with no functional limitation.
- ASA III: Severe systemic disease with definite functional limitation (e.g., COPD).
- ASA IV: Severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life (e.g., unstable angina).
- ASA V: Moribund patient not expected to survive beyond 24h without surgery (e.g., ruptured AAA).
- suffix E: Emergency procedure.
- large predicted blood loss, or evidence of recent blood loss
- suspected anaemia
- Hx of heart disease
- Hx of lung disease
- Haematology patient
- reduced renal reserve: elderly people, diabetes
- cardiac drugs—diuretics, ACEi, Ca-blockers, digoxin.
- disturbed fluid balance: dehydration, vomiting, diarrhoea.
- known liver disease, or
- risk of liver disease (e.g., alcohol, malignancy).
- ALWAYS do INR as well.
- On anticoagulants
- Suspected bleeding tendency:
- liver disease
- inherited bleeding disorders
Use hospital policy.
- aet. >60y.
- Risk of heart disease (heavy smoker, diabetics >40y).
- Previous history of heart disease (incl. hypertension).