Ascites

Fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Often associated with pleural effusion and oedema.

Classified as exudate or transudate according to protein content.

Transudate: protein <30 g/L
  1. Hypoproteinaemia (liver failure, nephrotic syndrome)
  2. Portal hypertension
  3. Right heart failure
Exudate: protein >30 g/L
  1. Malignancy
  2. Pancreatic disease
  3. Tuberculous peritonitis