Microscopic haematuria (dipstix testing):
Macroscopic haematuria (frank):
- Always confirm with microscopy
- Vegetable dyes
- Serratia marcescens
>90% dysmorphic forms: renoparenchymal disease
<90%: lower tract pathology.
All paediatric cases to nephrologist.
Malignancy is less likely in <50aet.
Plain KUB, Cystoscopy, US kidney, (IVU).