Jugular venous pressure

Look between the two heads of sternocleidomastoid.


  1. double wave (a & v)
  2. vertical height
  3. not palpable
  4. changes with position
  5. occlusible above clavicle, fills from above
  6. hepatojugular reflux
  7. Valsalva's manoevre

If raised => raised R atrial pressure, PE, pericardial effusion.

Change with respiration.

Hypovolaemia, dehydration.