Definition: Increased pressure in the hepatic portal venous system.
Pressure in the portal vein is usually 10 to 15 cm H2O,
but is >30 cm H2O in portal hypertension.
Often patients present with only splenomegaly.
Oesophageal varices are pathognomic, but can only be diagnosed
- distended abdominal veins (± caput medusae),
- portosystemic encephalopathy.
- portal vein thrombosis
- cirrhosis (whatever cause)
- alcoholic hepatitis
- myelofibrosis (extrahepatic haematopoiesis)
- partial nodular transformation
- idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension
- congenital hepatic fibrosis
- Budd-Chiari syndrome
- veno-occlusive disease
- right heart failure
- constrictive pericarditis